The evidence base for stroke rehabilitation has increased pleasingly and continues to do so. Growing with this evidence base is a scientific appreciation of the clinical need for prescription of specific therapy most likely to enhance recovery in well-characterised groups, or even individual, stroke survivors. Using the model of motor recovery this presentation will explore current knowledge about the tailoring of physical therapy for people with different clinical presentations. Special reference will be made to therapy dose, predictive markers for response to specific physical therapies and a new evidenced-based algorithm to support therapists in clinical decision-making. Further development of the clinical science of personalised stroke rehabilitation will require integrated investigations of clinical efficacy, predictive markers and mechanisms of recovery. The recently completed SWIFT Cast Trial and ongoing FAST INdICATE Trial are examples of such investigations. Learning from conducting these trials will be shared.